In the endless corridors of history, a name was added in August 1947. "Quaid-e-Azam" It was that of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the Founder of Pakistan.
He was born in Karachi mercantile family on December 25, 1876, Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah had his early schooling at Karachi. At the age of 16, he passed the Matriculation education. Then he proceeded to England for higher studies and joined the Lincoln's Inn, to become the youngest Indian barrister to be called to the bar. He started practice as a lawyer first in Karachi and then in Bombay. By sheer native ability and determination ,young Jinnah rose quickly to prominence ,and soon became a successful lawyer.
In 1906, he joined the Indian National Congress. His political career began in 1910 when he was elected by Bombay Muslims to the newly constituted Imperial Legislative Council. In 1913 he joined the Muslim League and worked it. In 1915, Jannah loved and married Ratan Bai, the daughter of Sir Dinshaw Petit. Since he stud for civic freedoms, he resigned from the Imperial Council in 1919,when the Rowlett Bill was passed into law; and since he stood for "Ordered Progress", moderation, gradualism, and constitutionalism. When it opted for Gandhi's direction action and non-cooperation plank, he realized that by freedom, the Hindus meant "Hindu Raj". For many year he tried to established harmony of outlook between these two parties. Soon he was convinced that Hindu-Muslim unity was not possible so he devoted himself fully to the Muslim League.
He attended several unity conferences, authored the Delhi Muslim proposals 1927, pledged for the incorporation of basic Muslim demands in the Nehru report 1928, formulated the "fourteen points" 1929, as minimum Muslim demands for any constitutional settlement and as a riposte to Nehru report ,and participated in the Round Table Conference (1930) in London ,called the British to formulate a new constitution of India.
Despaired alike of the "negative" Congress attitude and a chronic disunity in Muslim ranks, he was into self-exile in London (1931),but returned to India. In 1930, Dr. Muhammad Allama Iqbal (Muffakir-e-Pakistan (The Thinker of Pakistan) or Shair-i-Mashriq (The Poet of the East) had explained the idea of Pakistan, Jinnah took up the cause and gave it a practical shape." Pakistan Resolution " was a remarkable incident in this respect. In 1934 at the fervent appeal of Muslims, became the President of reunited Muslim League, and assumed its leadership.
In the Annual Session of the Muslim League in 1934, the Pakistan Resolution was passed. Then he began to make untiring efforts for a separate homeland for the Muslims. When Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah took up the leadership of the Muslims in 1936, they were a mass of demoralized men and women, politically disorganized and without a clear-cut political programme. During the next three years , Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah made energetic efforts to broaden his mass support ,bringing the Muslims on the one platform, breathing new life into the moribund League, democrating its structure and organizational network. As a result, in the general elections of 1937, the Muslim League won a large number of seats in the Provincial Assemblies. By 1939 he had become the sole spokesman of the Muslims, their Quaid-e-Azam ("the Great Leader of the Muslims").
In 1940 he spelled out the concept of Muslim nationhood ,asserting that "We are a nation ,with our own distinctive culture and civilization ,language and literature ,art and architecture, names and nomen culture, sense of value and proportion, legal laws and moral code, customs and calendar, history and traditions ,aptitudes and ambitions ,in short , we have our own distinctive outlook on and of life. By all canons of international law we are a nation". And on that basis of demand the setting up of an independent Muslim homeland in the predominantly Muslim northwestern and eastern India.
Despite the vehement opposition of the Congress and the antipathy of the British to his demand, Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah organized his movement gathered momentum within a few years ,became the central issue in all subsequent constitutional proposals. The Second World War came and ended. The British had promised to leave the country after the war. In March 1947, Lord Mountbattan was sent to India. On 15th August, India was divided into two states Bharat and Pakistan. He got Pakistan and took over the reins of the new state, and Pakistan emerged on the map of the World on August 14, 1947. It was the day of his triumph and was a great success for Jinnah.Quiad-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnha, then became the first Governor General.
Indeed, few nations in the world started on their career with less resources and in more difficult circumstances than Pakistan. That it survived at all was largely the hard work of one man Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who filled in need for a charismatic leader at the critical juncture in the nation's history. He deftly exploited the immense prestige and utmost loyalty he commanded among the people to energize them, to raise their morals ,and canalize the profound feelings of patriotism the coming of freedom had generated, along constructive channels. Tough tired and in poor health, Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah carried the heaviest part of the burden in that first, critical year. He devoted the last year of his life to the onerous task of consolidating Pakistan and securing its survival. But he could not make Pakistan as strong as he had dreamt beause he died on 11th September, 1948.
Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah believed in peace within and without ,and in the principle of "live and let live". Actually, the Pakistan demand itself, as defined by him ,was based on this principle : "let the two major nations, Hindus and Muslims, manage their affairs in their respective area according to their own rights and traditions and untwisted by the instruction of each other, thus paving the way for two nations to live in peace and good neighborliness with each other in the Subcontinent. "Pakistan presupposed freedom for the Subcontinent as a whole".
His passion for freedom was ,however not restricted either to Muslims or Hindus; It extended to all the enslaved people of the world struggling to liberate themselves from foreign yoke. He was a speaker of the first rank and his speeches was forceful and impressive. He was a model of sincerity.
One of the great nation builders, Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, invites comparison with some of the greatest names in modern times : Washington, Bismarck, Cavour, Gribaldi, Lenin, Ataturk, What, however, makes him so remarkable even in the galaxy of nation- builders is the fact that while others assumed the leadership of traditionally well-defined nations and led them to freedom, he created a nation out of an inchoate and backward minority and established a cultural and national home for it. And all that within a decade.
The Quaid was the recipient of some of the greatest tributes paid to any one in modern times ,some of them even from those who held a polarized viewpoint, The Agha Khan considered him "the greatest man he ever met"; Beverly Nichols, the author of verdict of India, called him "the most important man in Asia"; and Dr. Kailasnath Katju, the West Bengal Governor in 1948, thought of him as "an outstanding figure of this century, not only in India but in whole world"; While Adul Rehman Azzam Pasha, Secretary General of Arab League, called him "one of the greatest leader in the Muslim world", the Grand Mufti of Palestine considered his death as a "great loss" for the entire world of Islam. It was ,however, given to Sarat Chandra Bose, leader of the forward block Wing of the Indian National Congress to sum up his personal and political achievements. "Mr. Jinnah" he said on his death on 1948, "was great as a lawyer, once great as a Congressman, great as a Leader of Muslims, great as a world politician and diplomat, and greatest as of all as a man of action. By Mr. Jinnah's passing away, the world has lost one of the greatest statesmen and Pakistan its life-giver, philosopher and guide." He had a great determination. "Once the decision is taken, stand by it as one man", he told often say. He was independent of opinion and did what he thought was correct. He was also wise and shrewd politician. It was because of his personality that the Muslims united and got a new homeland. Such was Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the man and his mission ; such the range of accomplishment and achievements.
We must get a lesson from his life and act like a hero. Long fellow, a great American Poet has written:
In the World's broad field of battle,
In the bivouac of life,
Be not like dumb driven cattle,
Be a hero in the strife.
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